By Harriet E. Amos(Doss)
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Additional info for Cotton City
As the city grew at a phenomenal rate in the boom 1830s, municipal services expanded to sustain prosperity. When the boom collapsed in the Panic of 1837, the city faced bankruptcy. This crisis mandated rigid economy and fiscal responsibility from officials who had formerly often neglected to supervise budgetary matters as they conducted their own private pursuits of wealth. A decade after the onset of the panic, Mobile's growth rate slowed and, by contrast to the pre-panic era, the city appeared to stagnate.
Working People 80 5. Municipal Finance and Default 114 6. City Services 136 7. Social Services 168 8. Pursuit of Progress 193 9. Test of Loyalty 222 Appendix: Classification of Occupations 241 Notes 243 Essay on Sources 287 Index 299 Page viii Illustrations View of Mobile in 1842 27 Mobile Harbor in 1851 27 Christ Church 66 Fire in 1839 125 City Hall and New Market in 1857 133 Barton Academy 181 Maps Plan Profil et Elevation du Fort Condé de la Mobile, c. S. S. Exporting Centers, 1860 39 2-6 Local Insurance Companies, 1861 41 3-1 Comparison of Geographical Origins of Urban Leaders of Antebellum Mobile, Richmond, and Norfolk 51 3-2 Region of Birth by Group 52 3-3 Most Frequently Listed Birthplaces of Urban Leaders and Sample Males, 1860 52 3-4 Occupational Category by Group 57 3-5 Total Wealth by Group 57 3-6 Real Estate by Group 60 3-7 Personal Estate by Group 60 3-8 Number of Slaves Held by Group 61 3-9 City Residence by Group 68 3-10 Age by Group 71 3-11 Age of Wife by Group 71 3-12 Number of Children by Group 71 3-13 Age of Youngest Child by Group 72 3-14 Age of Eldest Child by Group 72 3-15 Nativity of Business Leaders in Mobile 73 3-16 Nativity of Government Leaders in Mobile 74 4-1 Male Employment in Manufacturing in the City of Mobile, 1860 82 4-2 Population of Mobile by Racial Group and Sex, 1830-60 86 4-3 Percentage of Decennial Population Growth by Racial Group in Mobile, 1830-60 86 Page x 4-4 Whites, Free Blacks, and Slaves as Percentages of the Population of Mobile, 1830-60 86 4-5 Occupations of White Male Heads of Household and Free Black Male Heads of Household, 1860 92 4-6 Occupations of White Female Heads of Household and Free Black Female Heads of Household, 1860 98 4-7 Residence of Racial Groups by Wards, 1860 100 4-8 Real Estate Holdings of Heads of Household by Race and Sex, 1860 102 4-9 Personal Estate Holdings of Heads of Household by Race and Sex, 1860 102 4-10 Increase of the Foreign-Born Population, 1850-60 106 5-1 Property Holdings of Government Leaders of Antebellum Mobile 119 5-2 Occupations of Government Leaders of Antebellum Mobile 119 5-3 Value of Taxable Property in Mobile, 1820-37 128 5-4 Value of Taxable Property in Mobile, 1838-60 129 5-5 Value of Classes of Taxable Property in Mobile, 1820-37 130 5-6 Value of Classes of Taxable Property in Mobile, 1838-60 131 6-1 Percentages of Annual Expenditures for City Departments, 1852-58 138 8-1 Manufacturing Enterprises in Mobile County, 1860 214 8-2 Manufacturing in Mobile County, 1860 215 8-3 Population and Manufactures of Major Southern Cities, 1860 217 Page xi Acknowledgments Preparation of this book has extended over a number of years, during which I have benefited from the help, advice, and encouragement of many people.
Furthermore, Mobile relied on New York for almost all imports. Mobile had the worst export-import imbalance of all antebellum ports. 3 As the volume of cotton exports increased, so did the population of Mobile, from 1,500 in 1820 to 30,000 in 1860. Although Mobile was the least populous of all major southern cities in 1860, its growth rate throughout the antebellum period remained exceptional. Urban growth proceeded rapidly throughout the nation during the antebellum years, and cities everywhere dealt with growth in similar ways.