By Vittorio Boscia, Alessandro Carretta, Paola Schwizer
This booklet investigates the most positive aspects of the evolution of the cooperative banking version in eu international locations, utilizing 'country case-study' research. established in elements, the 1st offers with a pattern of nations that joined ecu Union sooner than 2000; the second one half with a pattern of different newly admitted ecu Union member nations.
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Extra resources for Cooperative Banking in Europe: Case Studies (Palgrave Macmillan Studies in Banking and Financial Institutions)
They were administered by a senior government servant, a clergyman or the mayor as representatives of the King, the clergy or the aristocracy respectively. These community warehouses also acted as credit institutions for the support of farmers in those years when the harvest was poor. Seeds were made available and a minimal interest paid back in kind at a later stage, as in the case of a loan. Mention must be made of the fact that it was only at a much later time that similar institutions developed in Scotland (1649), and more than 200 years later in Germany (1765).
This data confirms the policies the cooperative system has usually adopted as to the reserve funds of the annual profit, and it grants a level of capital adequacy that is usually the highest in the traditional banking system. Note 1. This is the main regulation in the banking field in Decree-Law no. 298/92 of 31 December, amended by Decree-Laws no. 246/95 of 14 September, no. 232/96 of 5 December, no. 222/99 of 22 June, no. 250/2000 of 13 October, no. 285/2001 of 3 November, no. 319/2002 of 28 December and No.
82 b. 27 Source: Credito Agricola Mutuo Group (2004). 80%. 3a). At the beginning, this variation was attributable to a decrease of the gross profit of Portugal’s own means (OpR/E) rather than to variations of the extraordinary and tributary components. In fact, the incidence of the extraordinary VOICES was positive in 2004 in contrast to the negative incidence recorded in 2003. 82 in 2004. The level of gross profitability of Portugal’s own means is superior to what the Portuguese banking system has recorded.