By Christophe Goupil

Sound wisdom of the newest learn leads to the thermodynamics and layout of thermoelectric units, delivering a superior beginning for thermoelectric point and module layout within the technical improvement technique and hence serving as an necessary device for any program development.

The textual content is aimed in most cases on the venture developer within the box of thermoelectric know-how, either in academia and undefined, in addition to at graduate and complex undergraduate scholars. a few middle sections handle the professional within the box of thermoelectric strength conversion, delivering designated dialogue of key issues in regards to optimization.

The overseas crew of authors with adventure in thermoelectrics learn represents such institutes as EnsiCaen UniversitE de Paris, JPL, CalTech, and the German Aerospace heart

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**Example text**

21). 20) In the case of an electron/hole system, two chemical potentials, ????c,n and ????c,p , may be deﬁned. 32) where V is the volume of the gas. 5 Temperature Dependence of the Chemical Potential ????c (T) As already implied within Eq. 21), the chemical potential is a function of the temperature. This dependence can already be rather complex in basic model systems. In an ideal Fermi gas, with Fermi energy deﬁned as ????F = ????c (T = 0), the temperature dependence of the chemical potential is approximately given by a Sommerfeld expansion of the energy to ] [ ( )2 ???? 2 kB T ????c (T) = ????F 1 − − (T 4 ) .

The primary ﬂow or gradient is applied in x-direction and the magnetic ﬁeld is directed in the transverse z-direction. The already discussed “thermoelectric” coeﬃcients show in general a dependence on the magnetic ﬁeld. They can be seen as longitudinal thermogalvanomagnetic coefﬁcients [213]. Now, deﬁnition of a number of transversal thermogalvanomagnetic coeﬃcients shall be given without any claim to completeness. 1 The Hall Coeﬃcient If there is no temperature gradient in any direction, then a transverse electric ﬁeld Ey can be observed if an electrical current density jx is applied while a magnetic ﬁeld Bz is present.

He is further known for his studies on the electrical conductivity of metals and crystal properties. Two methods for single crystal growth, named after him, are the horizontal and vertical Bridgman methods. More about his life and a list of publications can be found in Refs [124, 125]. He contributed numerous works on thermoelectricity and its connection to thermodynamic concepts, see, for example, [126–136]. The eﬀect that he proposed in Ref. [127] is deﬁned: ‘The Bridgman eﬀect (named after P.