By James L. Peterson and Werner Rheinboldt (Auth.)
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Thus, there is a growing number of independent vendors of I/O devices. These inde pendent manufacturers often design their devices so that they are plug-to-plug compatible with a popular computing system (such as the IBM 360/370 system, or the PDP-11). This means that, with their interface, their I/O device looks the same to the computer as the original manufacturer's device and can be just plugged right in. 6 illustrates a typical block diagram of a computer system which has a large number and variety of I/O devices.
Parity allows this kind of error (a change of one bit) to be detected. Once the error is detected, the appropriate steps to correct the error are not immediately obvious, but that is another problem. Parity can be either even or odd. For odd parity, the extra bit is set so that the total number of 1 bits in the code for a character is an odd number. Thus, for the characters given below, the parity bit is as shown. Character ASCII code Parity ASCII with Odd Parity A E R Z 4 1000001 1000101 1010010 1011010 0110100 0101100 0100000 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 11000001 01000101 01010010 11011010 00110100 00101100 10100000 t (blank) For even parity, the parity bit is set so that the total number of one bits per character is even.
01101 (base 2) = = = = = = (0 + (1 + (1 + (0 + 1 / 2 ) / 2 ) / 2 ) / 2 ) / 2 (0 + (1 + (1 + (0 + 0 . 40625 (base 10) 31 32 1 BASIC COMPUTER ORGANIZATION Or, considering that multiplication by two simply shifts the binary point by one place to the right, we can convert by 0 . 1 0 1 1 1 1 (base 2) = = = = = 0 . 734375 (base 10) Conversion from decimal fractions to binary is easily done by a simple iterative multiplication scheme. Assume we have a fraction, x, which we wish to express in binary. Then we wish to solve for the bits in x = Χ_Λ2~λ + X_22~2 + X_ 3 2- 3 + · · · + X-m2~m We can immediately derive that 2 x x = Χ_Λ + X_ 2 2" 1 + X_ 3 2- 2 + .