Download Climate Change Science Compendium 2009 by United Nations PDF

By United Nations

"The weather switch technological know-how Compendium" is a overview of a few four hundred significant clinical contributions to our knowing of Earth structures and weather which were published via peer-reviewed literature or from learn associations over the past 3 years, because the shut of analysis for attention by means of the IPCC Fourth overview file. The Compendium isn't a consensus rfile or an replace of the other approach. as a substitute, it's a presentation of a few fascinating clinical findings, interpretations, principles, and conclusions that experience emerged between scientists. targeting paintings that brings new insights to elements of Earth procedure technology at quite a few scales, it discusses findings from the overseas Polar 12 months and from new applied sciences that increase our talents to determine the Earth's structures in new methods. proof of unforeseen charges of swap in Arctic sea ice volume, ocean acidification, and species loss emphasizes the urgency had to advance administration ideas for addressing weather switch.

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2: Interlinkages among climate changes, plant and animal response, and economic activity CHANGE Phenology – spring arrival – autumn arrival – growing season length Effects on Species Temperature – means – extremes – variability – seasonality Rainfall – means – extremes – variability – seasonality Extreme events – storms – floods – droughts – fires CO 2 concentrations – atmospheric – ocean – ocean pH Changes in competitive ability Uncoupling of mutualisms (including pollinator loss and coral bleaching) Changes in fecundity leading to changing population structure Uncoupling of parasite-host relationships Inability to form calcareous structures and dissolving of aragonite Change in distribution ranges Desynchonization of migration of dispersal events Increased physiological stress causing direct mortality and increased disease suspectibility Uncoupling of predator-prey relationships Changes in sex ratio Loss in habitat Interactions with new pathogens and invasives Agriculture Animal ­husbandry Fisheries Human health The changing climate is affecting the timing and quantity of water availability, the length of growing seasons, and the life cycles of pests and pathogens.

Synthesis analyses, referred to as sea-level budgets, are conducted periodically to compare direct observations of sea-level rise with models and evaluations of the component contributions. Thermal expansion is determined by ocean temperature measurements from large numbers of automated buoys, while glacier and ice sheet contributions are determined by geodetic measurements of land ice volume change as well as by mass budget fluxes observed in individual ice bodies. Since 2003, land ice and land hydrology changes have been detected gravitationally by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite system.

2: Interlinkages among climate changes, plant and animal response, and economic activity CHANGE Phenology – spring arrival – autumn arrival – growing season length Effects on Species Temperature – means – extremes – variability – seasonality Rainfall – means – extremes – variability – seasonality Extreme events – storms – floods – droughts – fires CO 2 concentrations – atmospheric – ocean – ocean pH Changes in competitive ability Uncoupling of mutualisms (including pollinator loss and coral bleaching) Changes in fecundity leading to changing population structure Uncoupling of parasite-host relationships Inability to form calcareous structures and dissolving of aragonite Change in distribution ranges Desynchonization of migration of dispersal events Increased physiological stress causing direct mortality and increased disease suspectibility Uncoupling of predator-prey relationships Changes in sex ratio Loss in habitat Interactions with new pathogens and invasives Agriculture Animal ­husbandry Fisheries Human health The changing climate is affecting the timing and quantity of water availability, the length of growing seasons, and the life cycles of pests and pathogens.

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