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By G.A. Colditz, D.J. Hunter

This quantity, the 1st within the new sequence melanoma Prevention - melanoma motives, is derived from the first and second experiences of the Harvard middle for melanoma Prevention released in melanoma reasons and keep an eye on, 1996; 7(Suppl 1) and 1997; 8(Suppl 2), respectively. during this quantity we extend on fabrics to summarize the proof on explanations of melanoma and to set forth a sequence of thoughts to advertise the prevention of melanoma. melanoma Prevention - melanoma motives is designed to supply a finished evaluation of what we all know approximately melanoma chance within the usa (and different proven industry economies) and the preventive measures we will be able to take to lessen the weight of melanoma. within the first half this quantity, we evaluation the reasons of human melanoma contemplating a variety of strength assets of hazard corresponding to smoking, nutrition, sedentary way of life, occupational elements, viruses, and alcohol. We finish that melanoma is certainly preventable. Over 50 percentage of cancers might be avoided if lets enforce what we already learn about the reasons of melanoma. within the moment 1/2 this quantity, we summarize examine on prevention courses, public schooling campaigns, and social coverage measures for combating melanoma. operating in colleges, health and wellbeing clinics, and offices in addition to throughout the mass media and within the political enviornment, social scientists and wellbeing and fitness educators are designing cutting edge and potent future health merchandising courses to assist humans give up smoking, consume extra healthily, and workout extra.

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Prevalence and trends, 1960-1994. Int J Obesity 22: 39-47. 4. Risch H (1998) Hormonal etiology of epithelial ovarian cancer, with a hypothesis concerning the role of androgens and progesterone. J Natl Cancer Inst 90: 1774-1786. 5. Stoll BA (1996) Obesity and breast cancer. Int J Obesity 20: 389-392. 6. Sitteri PK (1987) Adipose tissue as a source of hormones. Am J Clin Nutr 45(Suppl 1): 277-282. 7. Greenwald P, Sherwood K, McDonald SS (1997) Fat, caloric intake and obesity. Lifestyle risk factors for breast cancer.

In women, menarche and menopause are associated with marked and fairly rapid hormonal changes, particularly in estrogen levels. Estrogens, the female sex hormone, which promote breast cell proliferation, increase substantially around menarche and remain elevated until the perimenopausal period. In premenopausal women estrogens are secreted from the ovaries and to a lesser extent by adipose tissue [5]. In postmenopausal women not taking estrogen replacement therapy, adipose tissue becomes the principal source of estrogens [6] by converting androstenedione, a hormone secreted by the adrenal gland, to estrone, which is a form of estrogen [7].

A large body of evidence suggests that even moderate alcohol consumption can increase breast cancer risk: each daily alcoholic drink increases risk by about ten percent [11]. Recent studies show that alcohol increases the levels of estrogens in the bloodstream [12], which would be expected to increase breast cell division and increase cancer risk. Recommendations are complicated by the fact that modest alcohol consumption almost certainly decreases the risk of coronary heart disease (perhaps related to the same mechanism of increasing circulating estrogens, perhaps in part due to the effect of alcohol on lipids or blood clotting); the balance of risks and benefits for individual women is complex.

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