By Alexander Reichel
A instruction manual for speedy, goal-oriented analyzing and implementation. Case learn tasks exemplify universal norm info utilizing large-scale drawings. the basics of making plans load-bearing constructions supply layout and making plans aid.
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A guide for speedy, goal-oriented analyzing and implementation. Case learn tasks exemplify universal norm information utilizing large-scale drawings. the basics of making plans load-bearing buildings offer layout and making plans aid.
Additional info for Building with Steel
The compatibility of temperature fluctuations with the structure as a whole must always be checked and controlled by including expansion joints. Further details of material properties can be found in the appendix (see pages 105–108). 33 Designing the loadbearing structure Structural systems, structural elements Structural system Linear Planar Single curvature Straight Linear member Beam Torsional strut Arch Cable Truss Frame Beam grid Truss Frame 7 Plate Slab Shell Net Membrane Vierendeel girder Structural systems, structural elements An understanding of the structural action of basic structural systems forms the basis for their sensible inclusion individually and in combinations to form the complete loadbearing structure of a building.
Just like the architectural design initially requires a concept developed from urban, sociological and functional requirements, the structural design requires a concept for carrying the loads. This latter concept has to take into account the constructional boundary conditions, the design approaches and the expectations regarding the durability and economics of a particular construction. Owing to its easy shaping and the possibilities for assembling single components and adapting them to the loadings in the structure as a whole, steel is a building material that presents good conditions for optimising loadbearing structures with regard to the architectural and functional requirements.
The basic material for producing steel is pig iron obtained from a blast-furnace. A blast-furnace is a huge vessel up to 100 m high which is lined with firebricks and clad in a steel jacket. It is fed from above with a mixture of iron ore (iron oxide), limestone (= burden) and coke. Iron is the fourth commonest chemical element in the Earth’s crust. In its natural form it exists as a base metal in an oxidised state. Rocks with an iron content exceeding 20% are suitable for smelting and are collectively known as iron ore.