By T. R. Oke
This contemporary climatology textbook explains the climates shaped close to the floor by way of the biking of power and mass via platforms
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The Atmosphere is a relatively good absorber in the long-wave band (3 to 100 µm). 6, this is particularly due to the absorptivities of water vapour (H O), carbon dioxide (CO ) and ozone (O ). Of these, 2 2 3 water vapour is by far the most important. If liquid water is present, as cloud droplets, the absorptivity is even greater. There is, however, one important gap in a cloudless Atmosphere’s absorption spectrum for longwave radiation. Except for a narrow band of ozone absorption (9·6 to 9·8 µm), the Atmosphere is open to the transmission of radiation in the 8 to 11 m band.
For most surfaces the adjustment is small. Because the values of T0 and ε0 are greater than their atmospheric counterparts, and because T0 varies considerably through the day, the value of L↑ is both greater in magnitude and more variable than L↓. 9) is usually negative, and relatively small (75 to 125 Wm-2) if the surface and air temperatures are not significantly different. g. 3, p. 233) L* may be much larger. The diurnal course of L* is usually in phase with L↑. Energy and mass exchanges 23 The net all-wave radiation (Q*) is the most important energy exchange because for most systems it represents the limit to the available energy source or sink.
Finally, the portion of the incoming solar radiation that arrives at the Earth’s surface, without being absorbed or diffused, is called the directbeam short-wave radiation (S). 6 Absorption at various wavelengths by constituents of the Atmosphere, and by the Atmosphere as a whole (after Fleagle and Businger, 1963). where S is the flux density of the beam radiation at the surface, Si is the flux density normal to the beam and Θ is the angle between the beam and the normal to the surface. This corollary of Lambert’s Law (Appendix A1, p.