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By Mary R. Lefkowitz

Was once Western civilization based via historic Egyptians and Phoenicians?Can the traditional Egyptians usefully be referred to as black?Did the traditional Greeks borrow faith, technological know-how, and philosophy from the Egyptians and Phoenicians?Have students overlooked the Afroasiatic roots of Western civilization because of racism and anti-Semitism?In this choice of twenty essays, best students in a extensive variety of disciplines confront the claims made through Martin Bernal in Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization. In that paintings, Bernal proposed an intensive reinterpretation of the roots of classical civilization, contending that historic Greek tradition derived from Egypt and Phoenicia and that eu students were biased opposed to the idea of Egyptian and Phoenician impact on Western civilization. The individuals to this quantity argue that Bernal's claims are exaggerated and in lots of situations unjustified.Topics coated comprise race and actual anthropology; the query of an Egyptian invasion of Greece; the origins of Greek language, philosophy, and technology; and racism and anti-Semitism in classical scholarship. within the end to the amount, the editors suggest a wholly new scholarly framework for figuring out the connection among the cultures of the traditional close to East and Greece and the origins of Western civilization.

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6): one to the north, to join the West Street, a secondto the east (the South Road), and a third in a southeasterlydirectionhigher up on the slopes of the Areopagus(the Upper South Road). Of these three the South Road, running around the lower slope of the Areopagus to the Middle Gate in the Post-Herulian Wall, was the main artery for this area. Establishedas early as the Bronze Age, it remainedin use, with graduallyrising levels, over substantiallythe same course until the 20th century. By the Late Roman period encroachmentsfrom the south had permanently narrowedit to approximatelyhalf of its original width, or ca.

The columnsthat were found over and aroundthe Late Pompeionwere very likely used in both phases of its construction. 97 The published studies of impost blocks are directedmainly toward the decoratedtype, well integratedwith the general architecturalscheme,ratherthan the undecorated,purely utilitarianform designedto effect a transitionfrom the capital to the arch. It might be notedthat Greece,where the chief sourceof columns in Late Antiquity was the cannibalizationof ancientbuildings,would have been a fertile ground for e ro the columns in type, since thelate buildings (as in the Pompeion) were often of disparateheights, which could be rectifiedby the use of the impost.

Himerius saw the Panathenaicprocession,but what actual buildingsdid he see? Certaintyexists only in the case of the long stoa borderingthe PanathenaicWay on the south side just before the street enters the Agora. 92Moreover,this For these see below, p. 60. For the definitivepublicationof the Pompeion in all periods, see Hoepfner. The reporton the investigationand dating of the latest phase, from which the present accountis largely drawn, will be found on pp. 176-199, with references. The two new buildings will be referred to as the "Late Pompeion"(Hoepfner's Hallenstrasse) and Festtor, retaininghis term for what was evidentlya ceremonialgateway,perhapssimilar to one at the entranceto the stadiumat Delphi.

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