By Sun Zhenjun (auth.), Ayten Karaca (eds.)
Earthworms, which belong to the order Oligochaeta, contain approximately 3,000 species grouped into 5 households. Earthworms were referred to as ‘ecosystem engineers’; very similar to human engineers, they modify the constitution in their environments. Earthworms are very flexible and are present in approximately all terrestrial ecosystems. They play a massive position in woodland and agricultural ecosystems. This Soil Biology quantity describes a few of the elements of earthworms, similar to their function in soil development, soil constitution, and the biocontrol of soil-borne plant fungal illnesses. stories speak about earthworms’ innate immune approach, molecular markers to handle a variety of problems with earthworm ecology, earthworm inhabitants dynamics, and the affects of natural farming structures and tillage. additional themes comprise the features of vermicompost, relationships among soil earthworms and enzymes, the position of spermathecae, copulatory habit, and adjustment of the donated sperm volume.
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Additional info for Biology of Earthworms
Both spatial heterogeneity and autocorrelation should be accounted for in the sampling design of any ecological field study, as many statistical tests rely on the assumption of independence of observations. , earthworm density) are said to be spatially autocorrelated when pairs of observations with a certain distance apart are more similar (positive autocorrelation) or less similar (negative autocorrelation) than expected for randomly associated pairs of observations. This higher (or lower) similarity among mutually closer observation sites is very common in nature.
Also the effects of spatial patchiness on estimation of asymptotic species richness needs further research as it can be assumed that higher spatial aggregation means that a higher sampling effort is needed to capture total earthworm richness compared to randomly distributed organisms. Acknowledgements We thank Veerle Cielen, Eric Van Beek and Johan Wauters for their technical assistance during field work and earthworm identification. This research is part of the project ‘Framework for assessing sustainability levels in Belgian agricultural systems-SAFE’ (CP 04) supported by the Belgian Science Policy Office.
2003) can be somewhat different from the actual content of the powder we used. It is thus possible that the 2 Optimizing Earthworm Sampling in Ecosystems 27 mustard treatments had an effectively lower AITC concentration than the pure AITC treatments. The optimum of 150 mg lÀ1 pure AITC for sampling earthworm biomass and the lower optimum of 100 mg lÀ1 for earthworm numbers may indicate a trade-off between the recovery of smaller and more numerous individuals (juveniles and epigeics) on the one hand and heavier and less numerous individuals on the other (adults/subadults and anecics).