By Hermann Ehrlich
This can be the second one monograph by way of the writer on organic fabrics of marine starting place. The preliminary publication is devoted to the organic fabrics of marine invertebrates. This paintings is a resource of contemporary wisdom on biomineralization, biomimetics and fabrics technological know-how with admire to marine vertebrates. For the 1st time in medical literature the writer offers the main coherent research of the character, beginning and evolution of biocomposites and biopolymers remoted from and saw within the extensive number of marine vertebrate organisms (fish, reptilian, birds and mammals) and inside their exact hierarchically geared up structural formations. there's a wealth of latest and newly synthesized details, together with dozens of formerly unpublished photos of exact marine creatures together with extinct, extant and residing taxa and their biocomposite-based constructions from nano- to micro – and macroscale. This monograph reports the main correct advances within the marine organic fabrics study box, mentioning a number of methods being brought and explored via specific sleek laboratories.
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Additional resources for Biological Materials of Marine Origin: Invertebrates
The cystolith is a spindle-shaped body composed of concentric layers of longitudinally orientated cellulose microfibrils and are associated with pectins and other cell wall polysaccharides. At maturity the cystoliths are heavily impregnated with calcium carbonate (Watt et al. 1987). Silica-based biominerals identified in chordates, including human and mammals, are represented in the Addendum (Table 1). 1 Calcium-Based Biominerals Calcium-based marine invertebrate’s skeletons have been optimized by natural selection over millions of years to physically support and physiologically maintain diverse tissue types encompassing a variety of functions (Green et al.
2006), and cystoliths (Saetre 1954); gallstones (Been et al. 1979); bladder stones (Chaudhri et al. 2007); rhinoliths (calculus present in the nasal cavity) (Celikkanat et al. 1997; Rasinger et al. 1985; Shaw 2007; Vink et al. 2002); tonsilloliths (oropharyngeal concretions) (Cerny and Bekarek 1990; Mesolella et al. 2004); vaginoliths—vaginal calculi (Cetinkursun et al. 2001; Malhotra et al. 2004; Malik et al. 2006); cardiolytes (Gilinskaya et al. 2003); cutaneous calculi (Moulik et al. 1974; Neild and Marsden 1985; Tezuka 1980); enteroliths (Lopez and Welch 1991; Pantongrag-Brown et al.
Biostable ceramics neither resorb nor induce osteoblastic apposition on their surfaces within the body. Advantages are that both aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide are strong and stable (so there is no need to follow degradation products); while the disadvantages include having weak interface with bone or tissue, low shock resistance, high modulus, and the potential for catastrophic failures. Bioactive Ceramics. The most common examples are bioactive glasses (Bioglass) (see Hench (1998)), bioactive glass-ceramics (Ceravitals A-W Ceramic).