Download Beyond Oil and Gas: The Methanol Economy by George A. Olah PDF

By George A. Olah

A really worthwhile evaluate on present and destiny strength resources and effort vendors and an inspiring proposal on methanol as a destiny carbon impartial power service.

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Because of the gaseous state of natural gas, it occupies enormous volumes compared to liquid or solid fuels. For intercontinental transport, across oceans, natural gas is usually liquefied to yield liquefied natural gas (LNG). This process is, however, energy-intensive, and requires specially designed and highly expensive tankers that keep natural gas at or below its boiling point (–162 hC) in highly insulated, doublewalled tanks. LNG can also be dangerous. In 1944, the explosion of an LNG storage plant in Cleveland, Ohio, killed 128 persons and injured several hundreds.

In the same way that wood was turned into charcoal, coal had first to be baked to drive off the volatiles and form coke. By the 1770s, the technology had advanced to the point where coke could be used in all stages of iron production. With this breakthrough, Britain – rather than being dependent upon iron imports – became, in just a few years, the most efficient iron producer in the world. This allowed it to build its powerful industries at home and its vast empire abroad. 2 Watt’s engine, 1774.

After first finding places 23 24 Chapter 3 History of Oil and Natural Gas where gas was seeping to the surface, the Chinese built crude pipelines from bamboo stems to transport the gas, which was then used to boil sea water, separating the salt and making the water potable. In America, naturally occurring gas was identified as early as 1626, when French explorers discovered natives igniting gases that were seeping from the ground around Lake Erie. Indeed, the beginnings of the American natural gas industry arose in this area.

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