By Peter V. Hobbs
Up-to-date and revised, this hugely profitable textual content info the elemental chemical ideas required for contemporary stories of atmospheres, oceans, and Earth and planetary structures. This thoroughly obtainable advent permits undergraduate and graduate scholars with little formal education in chemistry to know such basic recommendations as chemical equilibria, chemical thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, answer chemistry, acid and base chemistry, oxidation-reduction reactions, and photochemistry. within the better half quantity advent to Atmospheric Chemistry (also to be released in may well 2000), Peter Hobbs info atmospheric chemistry itself, together with its purposes to pollution, acid rain, the ozone gap, and weather swap. jointly those books supply a great advent to atmospheric chemistry for a number of disciplines.
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Extra info for Basic physical chemistry for the atmospheric sciences
To obtain an expression for dsgas • we can follow any reversible and isothermal path from state I to state 2, and evaluate the integral = ds gas = f dqre v I T 2 For an ideal gas (see Exercise 2 . 28) dqre v dT dp -- = cP- - RT p T where R is the gas constant for a unit mass of the gas and c P the specific heat at constant pressure of the gas . Therefore , or, 26 I t Basic physical chemistry Since T1 T2 , the ideal gas equation reduces to Boyle' s law ,which can be written as p 1 a 1 = p2a2 , w here the a ' s are specific volumes.
Therefore, from Eq . (2 . 6) , the heat dq added to a unit mass of the system at constant pressure is given by dq = (u2 - u 1 ) + p( a2 - a 1 ) = (u 2 + pa2) - (u 1 + pa 1 ) where u1 and u2 are , respectively, the initial and final i nternal energies for unit mass . 9) From Eqs . (2. 9) dh = cp dT (2. 1 0) or, on integrating , (2 . 1 1) 1 1 where the value of h is taken to be zero at the absolute zero of temperature ( T = OK) . Exercise 2 . 1 . A parcel of dry air at l atm pressure receives 1 07 J of heat by radiation from the sun, and its volume increases by 22 m3 • If the center of the mass of the parcel does not move, what is the change in the internal energy of the parcel ?
29) and Eq . 43). 5 atm at l5°C . Show that dq = dh - a dp where the symbols are as defined in Section 2 . 1 . 27. Basic physical chemistry Show that i f a chemical reaction occurs at pressures near 1 atm and involves only solids and/or liquids dH = dU where dH and dU are the changes in enthalpy and internal energy of the system during the chemical reaction. If, on the other hand , gases are involved in the chemical reaction , show that dH = dU + R * Tdn + R*ndT 2 . 28. where dn is the change in the number of moles of gas during the chemical reactions and dT the change in temperature .