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By Evguenia Davidova

Drawing upon formerly unpublished advertisement ledgers and correspondence, this examine bargains a collective social biography of 3 generations of Balkan retailers. own debts humanize multiethnic networks that navigated a number of social structures aiding and opposing a number of facets of nationalist ideologies.

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Extra resources for Balkan Transitions to Modernity and Nation-States: Through the Eyes of Three Generations of Merchants (1780s-1890s) (Balkan Studies Library, Book 6)

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110 The lack of banks and other credit institutions at that time stimu­ lated a proliferation of private credit activities. For example, in 1800, h. Khristo Rachkov lent 38,670 k. 111 His contemporaries the Sakhatchiĭski broth­ ers were also engaged in credit. In 1813, they borrowed 30,819 k. 112 The Arie family’s archive is quite frank in revealing the mechanisms of calculating interest rate. ” However, “The Turkish law does not allow to earn an interest and for this purpose in the prom­ issory note we write the sum, which had to be paid as it was decided.

65 The beginning of a commercial career varied and usually combined dif­ ferent activities. Hacı Khristo Rachkov of Gabrovo started in 1782 and over the years traded in around 100 different commodities ranging from export of foodstuff, furs, and silk to Bucharest and Moscow to import of iron pad­ locks. Often in those ventures the invested sums were small, the profit was divided into two equal parts and Rachkov’s share did not exceed 100 k. By 1791, he had participated in eight partnerships and received on average between 30–80 k.

Sbornik v pamet na profesor Khristo Gandev, ed. Milen Semkov (Sofia: Universitetsko izdatelstvo “Sv. Kliment Okhridski,” 2000), 86–94. 55 Lazăr, Les marchands en Valachie, 11. 56 There is voluminous research on this topic. Elena Frangakis-Syrett, Trade and Money: The Ottoman Economy in the Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries (Istanbul: The ISIS Press, 2007); Gelina Harlaftis, “Participation of Greek Merchants and Ship Owners in the Black Sea in the Nineteenth Century (1830–1900), in Proceedings Tenth Economic History Congress Shipping and Trade (1750–1950), eds.

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