Download Atmospheric thermodynamics: elementary physics and chemistry by Gerald R. North PDF

By Gerald R. North

This textbook offers a uniquely built-in procedure in linking either physics and chemistry to the examine of atmospheric thermodynamics. The ebook explains the classical legislation of thermodynamics, specializes in numerous fluid platforms, and, spotting the expanding significance of chemistry within the meteorological and weather sciences, devotes a bankruptcy to chemical thermodynamics along with an outline of photochemistry. even though scholars are anticipated to have a few history wisdom of calculus, normal chemistry and classical physics, the booklet offers set-aside refresher containers as important reminders. It comprises over a hundred diagrams and graphs to complement the discussions, and an identical variety of labored examples and workouts, with options incorporated on the finish of the e-book. it truly is excellent for a single-semester complex direction on atmospheric thermodynamics, and should organize scholars for higher-level synoptic and dynamics classes.

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Example text

2 Graph of pressure p versus volume V for an expansion of a gaseous system from VA to VB along a specified curve p(V ). The area under the curve is the work performed by the system on the environment. 3 Graph of pressure p versus volume V for an expansion of a gaseous system from VA to VB along a constant pressure path (isobaric path). The area under the curve is the work performed by the system on the environment. done by the parcel on its surroundings during the cyclic process. When the parcel’s volume decreases, it does negative work.

The force on the left side of the plate is caused by the reflection of molecules as they hit the left face of the plate and rebound. These impulsive forces are so frequent that the resulting macroscale force is effectively steady. The force is perpendicular to the face and has the same value no matter how the face is oriented. This can be seen by considering the collisions with the wall and the tendency for no momentum to be transferred parallel to the plane surface. The perpendicular component of the force per unit area on the plane is called the pressure.

38) In other words, the Boltzmann constant is the gas constant per molecule while R∗ is the gas constant for a mole of molecules. 40) = kB [m0 in kg]. 41) RG = ˜ G instead of MG above simply converts to SI units; this is Again the use of M because of the conventional definition of the mole in terms of grams instead of kilograms. Standard conditions (denoted STP) for a gas are 0 ◦ C and 1 atm of pressure (= 1013 hPa). 0224 m−3 at STP. 11 Calculate the gas constant for dry air. 97. Rd = 287 J kg−1 K−1 .

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