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By Dr. rer. nat. Oliver Montenbruck, Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Pfleger (auth.)

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S','s']) THEN RESULT(X,Y,Z,ECLIPT); UNTIL MODE IN ['S','s']; END. (* COCO *) (*-----------------------------------------------------------------------*) A simple menu enables the individual functions to be chosen. 6 The coca Program 31 H Conversion to heliocentric coordinates, S STOP (Quit program). The following example should illustrate the use and possibilities offered by coca. The coordinates to be converted may be entered in either the equatorial or the ecliptic form. One can also choose between Cartesian coordinates or polar coordinates.

The preceding definitions give us the following general rule of thumb for the use of Universal Time and Ephemeris Time: • Universal Time (UT) is used to calculate sidereal time . • Ephemeris Time (ET) or dynamical time (TT, TDB) are used to calculate solar, lunar, or planetary ephemerides. Let us take as an example the calculation of the altitude of the Moon, and consider the individual steps in the process. 6). We can ignore the slight difference between UTC and UT, so we obtain the Universal Time from UT=CET-lh .

Because rising and setting times are always referred to the upper limb of the Sun or the Moon, we also need to make allowance for the apparent radius 8e or 8Moon. 10) Our task now consists of finding, for a given date, the time at which the body being observed reaches an altitude of h = hR/S. Because there is no sense in trying to obtain the times to an accuracy better than a few minutes, we can forgo accurate calculation of 11" and 8 and use average values. The values normally taken in calculating rising and setting times are therefore: • • • Sunrise or sunset Moonrise or moonset for Stars or Planets hRIS = -0°50', hRls = +0°08', hRls = -0°34'.

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