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Because it was once first released in 1992, this publication has turn into one of many top anthologies of paintings theoretical texts within the English-speaking global. This accelerated version contains the end result of contemporary learn, regarding a large amount of newly translated fabric from the total interval, including extra texts from the final many years of the 20th century. The positive factors that made the 1st version such a success were retained: the quantity offers entire illustration of the theories, which underpinned advancements within the visible arts throughout the 20th century. in addition to writings through artists, the anthology contains texts via critics, philosophers, politicians and literary figures. The content material is obviously based into 8 largely chronological sections, beginning with the legacy of symbolism and concluding with modern debates in regards to the postmodern. The editors supply person introductions to every of the 340 anthologized texts. fabric new to this improved version contains texts on African artwork, at the Bauhaus and at the re-emergent avant-gardes of the interval after the second one international struggle. Post-modernist debates are amplified through texts on gender, on install and function artwork, and at the expanding globalization of tradition.

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Extra resources for Art in Theory 1900-1990: An Anthology of Changing Ideas

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This was the function of craniometry. It was a way to objectively prove the connection between race and intelligence. Craniometry legitimized the social order. It was a way ‘‘To ‘prove’ that upper-class whites and black slaves were biologically suited to their places at polar ends of the social hierarchy, the craniometrians did not hesitate to manipulate their measurements’’ (Mensh and Mensh, 1991: 14). Craniometry constitutes the initial steps of a scientifically articulated racism that rendered itself factually infallible, empirically verifiable.

1987) The Truly Disadvantaged. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 3 A Brief Archaeology of Intelligence Eric Mark Kramer and Lonnie Johnson, Jr. THEMATIC PROLEGOMENA Modernity (see Chapter 1) is characterized by Western-style individualism. One of its manifestations is the obsession with comparative (actually economically competitive) ‘‘intelligence’’ as a central value. The development of the modern concept of intelligence is related to craniometry and race. Craniometry is the measurement of human skulls as an indication of intelligence.

When others are forced to assimilate to some dominant standard, this is another way of denying their identity, their existence. We see the world by our own eyes, we hear through our own ears. Assimilation is the attempt to change these eyes and ears so that they see and hear (thereby behave) the way the dominant group does. Thus, difference is denied which supposedly removes all threats to the purity of the ‘‘superior’’ identity. In fact, voluntary assimilation may be one of the most powerful manifestations of eugenics.

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