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By Stefan H. E. Kaufmann, Bruce D. Walker

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7 The Current Vaccine Pipeline shown promising results in SIV (mac251)-infected macaques. After exposure to overlapping SIV peptides, autologous blood cells were reinfused into the animals. Following immunization, robust SIV-specific CD4 þ and CD8 þ T-cell responses were observed, and SIV levels were up to 10-fold lower for one year in immunized animals compared to controls. Furthermore, the AIDS-related mortality in immunized animals was significant delayed. Interestingly, immunization with all SIV proteins did not show any better effect on viral outcome compared to animals which had been immunized against Gag alone, thus supporting the fact that Gag is an effective stimulator for T-cells [90].

2009) Adaptive immune features of natural killer cells. Nature, 457, 557–561. D. (2007) Elite control of HIV Infection: implications for vaccines and treatment. Top. , 15, 134–136. , Venet, A. F. (2005) HIV controllers: a homogeneous group of HIV-1-infected patients with spontaneous control of viral replication. Clin. Infect. , 41, 1053–1056. F. and Meyer, L. (2005) Undetectable viremia without antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV seroconversion: an uncommon phenomenon? Clin. Infect. , 40, 1350–1354.

However, this concern remains unsubstantiated. 2 Neutralizing Antibodies Following the identification of HIV as the causative agent of AIDS, it was predicted that a vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and thereby preventing infection would rapidly be available. Yet, a quarter of a century later an effective preventive HIV vaccine still eludes us. Neutralizing antibodies are induced by HIV, but fail to control viremia. Despite a pronounced antibody response to the viral envelope proteins, only a small fraction of these antibodies have neutralizing activity.

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