By Jeanne Fahnestock
While it was once first released in 1982, A Rhetoric of Argument built a ground-breaking new method of educating argument. The stasis technique pioneered via Fahnestock and Secor exclusive one of the 4 simple questions that arguments are written to answer:
What is it? (Definition arguments) How did it get that method? (Causal arguments) Is it strong or undesirable? (Evaluation arguments) What should still we do approximately it? (Proposal arguments)
These 4 questions, now typical in lots of argument texts, supply scholars a confident, enticing technique to study readings by means of different writers and to build their very own arguments.
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Additional resources for A rhetoric of argument
If you can cast your personal preference as a value that coincides with the predictable values of your audience, you have a reason that might be persuasive to them. The second reason on your list also looks very unpromising: "I don't know why the school should dictate what courses I have to take. " It amounts to a direct challenge to your school's power to design courses of study. But once again it contains a sharable point, this time a partial definition of what a university or college is. It is not exactly a business, but it does have "consumers" or "customers" that it has to please.
Subjects range from the individual (my cat Fido), through the many (the cats in my neighborhood), to the all (every cat), and from the concrete (Susan) to the abstract (humanity). Sometimes your audience will immediately recognize your subject (the White House). Other times, however, you will need to clarify, define, or even defend what you mean (Manicheism). The following scheme covers possible classifications that your subject 42 1 WHAT IS IT? could fall into. Match your subject to a category to find out the special problems it generates.
Putting in a word that suggests repetition is another way to create an iterative example: She often hums "0 Sole Mio" while making pizza. CLAIMS ABOUT THE NATURE OF THINGS . 35 There are many other possible indicators of iterative examples. They include use of the plural ("Confederate soldiers sang 'Aura Lee' to their sweethearts"), mention of an unidentified observer ("Anyone on the Champs Elysees can see the hookers leaning on lampposts"), and use of a singular subject that stands for a group ("The young New Yorker spends Saturdays at Bloomingdale's buying leather accessories").