By J. L. E. Dreyer
A masterpiece of old perception and medical accuracy, this can be the definitive paintings on Greek astronomy and the Copernican Revolution. starting with the traditional Egyptians, it levels from the Pythagoreans and Plato to medieval ecu and Islamic cosmologies, concluding with detailed surveys of the works of Copernicus, Brahe, and Kepler.
Formerly titled: background of the Planetary structures from Thales to Kepler
Read Online or Download A History of Astronomy from Thales to Kepler (2nd Edition) (Dover Books on Astronomy) PDF
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Extra info for A History of Astronomy from Thales to Kepler (2nd Edition) (Dover Books on Astronomy)
1. Gravitational collapse is one way to overcome the growth barrier. The mutual gravitational attraction of a collection of small solids could lead to a runaway collapse into planetesimals – even when sticking is inefficient and radial drift is fast. While appealing, this path encounters theoretical difficulties when stirring by turbulent gas is included. 2 describes the current status of the gravitational collapse hypothesis. Even when self-gravity is weak, aerodynamic effects can concentrate solids in the disk.
However, the disk’s luminosity increases due to work done by torques at the inner edge, up to L d = L K for R J = . 29) where f d ranges from 1 (no torque) to 3 (maximum torque). 3 Note that Eq. 10 in Pringle (1981) has a factor of 2 typo in the intermediate result (involving ν) but reaches ˙ the correct final result (in terms of M). 15 16 1 From Disks to Planets The maximum disk luminosity occurs for a disk that extends to the stellar surface, R in = R∗ . 30) R∗ with ≲ f∗ ≲ , includes all the energy loss needed to come to rest on the rotating stellar surface.
Approaches (Bath and Pringle 1982; Lin and Pringle 1990; Stepinski 1998; Chambers 2009; Alexander and Armitage 2009). As the disk ages, it evolves from a viscous-dominated to an irradiation-dominated system. 39). > Figure 1-4 compares the evolution of the disk mass and accretion rate at the inner edge of the disk. 1 Myr, a factor of roughly 4 in 1 Myr, and a factor of roughly 10 in 10 Myr. Over the same period, the mass accretion rate onto the central star declines by roughly four orders of magnitude.